Friday, October 02, 2015

FAQ’s of Prophecy

Originally published on Friday, April 20, 2007

FAQ's of Prophecy

FAQ is an abbreviation for "Frequently Asked Question(s)". The term refers to listed questions and answers, all supposed to be frequently asked in some context and pertaining to a particular topic. Depending on usage, the term may refer specifically to a single frequently-asked question, or to an assembled list of many questions and their answers. Originally the term FAQ referred to the Frequently Asked Question itself and the compilation of questions and answers was known as a FAQ list or some similar expression. Today "FAQ" is more frequently used to refer to the list, and a text consisting of questions and their answers is often called a FAQ regardless of whether the questions are actually frequently asked (if asked at all). This is done to capitalize on the fact that the concept of a FAQ has become fairly familiar online - documents of this kind are sometimes called FAAQs (Frequently Asked and Anticipated Questions). I thought that in this commentary we will tackle the have frequently asked questions about prophecy. 

Q. What is a prophet?
A. In the Biblical Hebrew, the noun used for prophet is "nabi." Nabi means a spokesperson or person authorized to speak for another. Another word used in the Bible is "seer." A prophet is an ordinary person that has been gifted with a gift to hear or see things others cannot see. 

Q. What is the job of a prophet?
A. Again from the Hebrew, the verb "naba," which means to prophesy.

Q. What exactly is prophesying?
A. To communicate – normally orally or written - what is heard or seen.

Q. Who does the prophet represent or speaks for?
A. In the context of our discussion, the prophet represents and speaks for God. All prophets speak for their god. True prophets speak for the Living God. 

Q. Who chooses the prophet?
A. God himself chooses them. He calls them. (Isaiah 6: 1- 8; Jeremiah 1: 1 – 9; Moses in Exodus 3)

Q. Are prophets different than regular human beings?
A. Not in nature. They are sinners, just like any other. They are different than other human beings in their willingness to serve God. This does not make them special. Serving God is a choice any human being can make. This does not mean that all that choose to serve will be prophets. That is God's prerogative. We read about the distribution of gifts in 1 Corinthians 12: 11 - But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will. 

Q. Are the words of the prophet the Word of God?
A. Only when he is prophesying. Normally, as a spokesperson, the prophet speaks in his own language and style. However, the essence and principle of what he says is from God. There are times when God may tell the prophet to say things exactly as instructed. This again is God's prerogative.

Q. How do you know the words of the prophet are indeed from God?
A. Many quote the verse that the prophecy must happen. However, this was not true for Jonah. Even so, God's purpose was accomplished. God does not delight in the killing of people. We read in Luke 15:7 "I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance." A better text is Isaiah 8:20, "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." 

Q. Is prophecy always about the future?
A. Often it is. However, you will find that all foretelling prophecy ends up pointing to Jesus and the different phases of the plan of salvation. These prophecies are meant to encourage, as well as to educate, those who live by Faith. Most prophecy is to reveal and rebuke Sin. It is to bring people to repentance and back to God.

Q. Are there any prophets in our day?
A. As the lesson says, the fact that Jesus warned about false prophets lets us conclude that they are true ones also. Another fact is what it is written in Joel 2 about the last days,

Joel 2: 28 And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:

We are in the last days, are we not? 

Q. What happens if I reject the prophet and/or what the prophet is saying?
A. You reject God. Rejecting God has its consequences. Rejecting the prophet and or what the prophet says will result in the same consequences.


Friday, September 25, 2015

The World Has Heard

The World Has Heard

We read in Acts 4: 12,

12 Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.

Our lesson states: 

The words of the Scripture here are very clear: salvation is found only in Jesus Christ and in no other name under heaven. It's important, however, not to read into these words more than they specifically say.

Imagine a man in a building that is on fire; before being able to escape, he is overcome by smoke and collapses unconscious. A firefighter finds him on the floor, grabs him, and brings him outside, where the medics take over. He is rushed to the hospital, and a few hours later he regains consciousness.

The point is that this person, who was saved, had no idea who had saved him. In the same way, anyone who is saved—either before Jesus came in the flesh or after—will be saved only through Jesus, whether or not that person had heard of His name or of the plan of salvation.

Many will be saved that did not know the Gospel.  But, somehow knew the law and kept it.  Paul speaks of them in Romans 2: 14 – 15,

14 for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves, 
15 who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them)

Ellen White says of these,

Among the heathen are those who worship God ignorantly, those to whom the light is never brought by human instrumentality, yet they will not perish. Though ignorant of the written law of God, they have heard His voice speaking to them in nature, and have done the things that the law required. Their works are evidence that the Holy Spirit has touched their hearts, and they are recognized as the children of God.—Ellen G. White, The Desire of Ages, p. 638.

Paul here declares that there are some outside of Christianity who will receive eternal life as a result of an obedience-unto-life principle (cf. Lev. 18:5). For those Gentiles who show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts because their consciences also bearing witness (Rom. 2:15 NIV), it will make a difference on Judgment Day because these people have responded to the work of the Spirit in their hearts.

Following is a previous commentary that elaborates on this subject.

Christ's and the Law of Moses

The introduction to a previous lesson stated that the emphasis of that quarterly was the Moral Law, in other words, the Ten Commandments.  But, the memory text for a previous week seemed to downplay the importance of knowing these laws.  Why?  Let us read our memory text,

Romans 2:14 for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves,

This verse says that it is possible to do the law, without knowing the law.  For the Bible student, this should not come as a surprise.  As we read in Galatians 3:6, "Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness."  The word used for righteousness in Greek is the same word for justice.  So, that the righteous are just.  The just are doers of the law and they live by faith (Romans 1: 17; 2: 13).  Now, faith comes through the hearing of the Word (Romans 10: 17).  Abraham heard God's word, Abraham believed it, therefore, was reckoned a doer of the law.  Did Abraham know the Ten Commandments?  No, he did not.  Abraham knew the Gospel, but not the Ten Commandments.  These were not given more than 400 years after.  It begs the question, what Law did Abraham keep?

Even angels did not know there was a Law until they learned it from God.  Ellen White says, 

But in heaven, service is not rendered in the spirit of legality. When Satan rebelled against the law of Jehovah, the thought that there was a law came to the angels almost as an awakening to something unthought of. In their ministry the angels are not as servants, but as sons. There is perfect unity between them and their Creator. Obedience is to them no drudgery. Love for God makes their service a joy. So in every soul wherein Christ, the hope of glory, dwells, His words are re-echoed, "I delight to do Thy will, O My God: yea, Thy law is within My heart." Psalm 40:8. {MB 109.2}

No one will deny that the angels are doers of the Law, but they were doers of the Law even when they did not know there was a law.  So then why was the Law given?  Paul says in Galatians,

Gal 3:19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, …

Here the word added has a connotation of being spoken, declared.  The word transgression in Greek has a connotation of stepping aside the path.  So, the Law is declared because of our stepping aside the path of Christ.  This is clear in the following Ellen White's quote,

"If man had kept the law of God, as given to Adam after his fall, preserved by Noah, and observed by Abraham, there would have been no necessity for the ordinance of circumcision. And if the descendants of Abraham had kept the covenant, of which circumcision was a sign, they would never have been seduced into idolatry, nor would it have been necessary for them to suffer a life of bondage in Egypt; they would have kept God's law in mind, and there would have been no necessity for it to be proclaimed from Sinai or engraved upon the tables of stone. And had the people practiced the principles of the Ten Commandments, there would have been no need of the additional directions given to Moses. {PP 364.2}"

What our quarterly intends to uplift was given because the people failed to cherish God's covenant to them.  Anytime the 10 Commandments are lifted up is a reminder that the belief in the Covenant has been abandoned.  Should we then keep the Ten Commandments or the rest of the law hidden? 

Romans 7:7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

When I was growing up a 15-year-old had to wait until he was 16 to take the driver's license test.  Should he hate the law because he is 15?  Or, should he wait a few more months until he turns 16?  Even those who are displeased with the law will likely wait until they fulfill the requirements.  What does the Law require?

"The law requires righteousness,—a righteous life, a perfect character; and this man has not to give. He cannot meet the claims of God's holy law. But Christ, coming to the earth as man, lived a holy life, and developed a perfect character. These He offers as a free gift to all who will receive them. His life stands for the life of men. Thus they have remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God. More than this, Christ imbues men with the attributes of God. He builds up the human character after the similitude of the divine character, a goodly fabric of spiritual strength and beauty. Thus the very righteousness of the law is fulfilled in the believer in Christ. God can 'be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.' Rom. 3:26."—The Desire of Ages (1940), p. 762

Since, the righteous are doers of the Law, and love is the fulfilling of the law (Romans 13: 10), then it follows that the righteous are loving.  Even if these righteous are Gentiles who have never heard of Christ.  


Friday, September 18, 2015

What Paul Taught

Originally published on December 27, 2014

What is the Gospel?

John is a garbage truck driver in a large suburban city. During the winter, his garbage truck doubles as a snow plow and after every snow fall, John drives around the city to remove snow from the roads. Since snow removal has been added to John's garbage collection duties, he is paid overtime wages, and naturally, welcomes the extra money. With extra pay in mind, unlike many people who dread the forecast of snow, snow fall to John is good news. Most school children agree with John that snow is good news but for different reasons. After all, it usually means outdoor fun, and the likelihood that school will be cancelled. As expected, parents however, may not be so happy. Thus, it can be said, snow is only good news to some, not all.

The Greek word translated as Gospel means good news or glad tidings. In Luke 2:10, the angels said unto the shepherds, "Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people." Unlike snow fall which is good news to some people, the Gospel - here referring to the birth of Christ - is good news to all people. This means that Christ's second return cannot be the gospel, because it is only good news to those who believe - and expect it - not those who do not believe. Why is this so? Why is His birth good news to all, while His second advent is not? Does the Bible shed any light on this? Ellen White says that, "The Bible is its own expositor. Scripture is to be compared with scripture. The student should learn to view the word as a whole, and to see the relation of its parts" (Ed.190).  In that light, let us go to Scripture to see how the Gospel is defined.

First, we should note that the apostle Mark introduces his book as the Gospel of Christ; while (Apostle) Paul declares in the first few verses of Romans chapter one that "… the gospel of Christ: … is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek" (Vs. 16). No less than approximately a dozen times, Apostle Paul identifies the Gospel with God or Christ. Therefore, according to these texts, we can ascertain that the Gospel refers to Christ. Paul is not saying here that salvation is only for believers, but that it is only effective to believers. So, it is the power of God that saves. And, this power of God refers to Jesus and his birth.  In 1 Corinthians 1:17, 18 Paul goes a step further. Let us read,

For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect. For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.

This text associates the preaching of the Gospel with the preaching of the cross, on which Christ died. Furthermore, it equates them by calling them both: the power of God. Therefore, the Gospel, which refers to Jesus and His birth (which is the power of God unto salvation), is also the preaching of the cross.  So, now, we incorporate in this definition of the Gospel the death of Christ on the Cross.  Why is the cross so important?  We read in Philippians 2:8 concerning Christ,

And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.

The death of the cross was considered by the Jews as hanging from a tree, of which Paul says in Gal 3:13, Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:

Christ's death was the final death: complete annihilation. But, it is through this death that we were reconciled to God. We read in Romans 5:10,

For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.

Notice in this verse, that Christ's life is now part of the equation, as opposed to only His birth and death.  The Gospel refers to Jesus. It entails His incarnation, birth, life and death. And, in it is the power of God to save every man. Christ did this for the whole world. We read in 1 John 2:2; and 4:14,

And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. And we have seen and do testify that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world.

What about the resurrection? Paul addresses that also in 1 Corinthians 5:12 -14. Let us read,

Now if Christ is preached that he hath been raised from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hath Christ been raised: and if Christ hath not been raised, then is our preaching vain, your faith also is vain.

The resurrection of Christ gives the Gospel certainty and makes the Gospel effectual.  It guarantees our freedom from Sin.  And, how exactly are we implicated?  We read in Romans 6:3-5,

Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection:

Christ took us - the whole world - unto Himself and lived a life of prefect obedience.  Consequently, His life of perfect obedience is ours. His victory is ours. What our Saviour would like for us to do, is, to receive His gift whole heartedly. This is the good news to all people: salvation for all men 'in Christ'.
-Raul Diaz

Friday, September 11, 2015

What can we learn from Paul?

What can we learn from Paul?

There is much we can learn from the life of the Apostle Paul. Far from ordinary, Paul was given the opportunity to do extraordinary things for the kingdom of God. The story of Paul is a story of redemption in Jesus Christ and a testimony that no one is beyond the saving grace of the Lord. However, to gain the full measure of the man, we must examine his dark side and what he symbolized before becoming "the Apostle of Grace." Paul's early life was marked by religious zeal, brutal violence, and the relentless persecution of the early church. Fortunately, the later years of Paul's life show a marked difference as he lived his life for Christ and the advancement of His kingdom. 

Paul was actually born as Saul. He was born in Tarsus in Cilicia in a province in the southeastern corner of modern day Tersous, Turkey. He was of Benjamite lineage and Hebrew ancestry. His parents were Pharisees—fervent Jewish nationalists who adhered strictly to the Law of Moses. His household probably spoke Aramaic, a derivative of Hebrew, which was the official language of Judea.  Saul and his family were Roman citizens but viewed Jerusalem as a truly sacred and holy city. 

Saul was probably sent at the age of thirteen to Palestine to learn from a rabbi named Gamaliel, under whom Saul mastered Jewish history, the Psalms and the works of the prophets. His education would continue for five or six years as Saul learned such things as dissecting Scripture.  Saul went on to become a lawyer.  Paul says in Galatians that he excelled more than any of his contemporaries. 

In Acts 5:27-42, Peter delivered his defense of the gospel and of Jesus in front of the Sanhedrin, which Saul probably heard.  Gamaliel was also present and delivered a message to calm the council and prevent them from stoning Peter.  Ellen White says about this event, 
So enraged were the Jews at these words [of Peter] that they decided to take the law into their own hands and without further trial, or without authority from the Roman officers, to put the prisoners to death. Already guilty of the blood of Christ, they were now eager to stain their hands with the blood of His disciples.  But in the council there was one man who recognized the voice of God in the words spoken by the disciples. This was Gamaliel, a Pharisee of good reputation and a man of learning and high position. His clear intellect saw that the violent step contemplated by the priests would lead to terrible consequences. Before addressing those present, he requested that the prisoners be removed. He well knew the elements he had to deal with; he knew that the murderers of Christ would hesitate at nothing in order to carry out their purpose.  {AA 82}  
It is possible that from that moment on, Saul became even more determined to eradicate Christians as he watched the Sanhedrin flog Peter and the others.  Saul was zealous for his faith, and this faith did not allow for compromise. It is this zeal that led Saul down the path of religious extremism. 

After this Stephen comes into the picture.  Those arguing with Stephen could not hold their ground against him, so they took him to the Sanhedrin, where Paul was enlisted to show that Stephen was wrong.  Ellen White says, 

Saul of Tarsus was present and took a leading part against Stephen. He brought the weight of eloquence and the logic of the rabbis to bear upon the case, to convince the people that Stephen was preaching delusive and dangerous doctrines; but in Stephen he met one who had a full understanding of the purpose of God in the spreading of the gospel to other nations.  {AA 98}  
Stephen's voice and words were like the screeching of fingers on a black board to the listeners.  They covered their ears.  Also, Stephen radiant face was offensive to onlookers.  They decided to take Stephen out of the city and stone him.  Saul was present for his stoning and death.  The Bible says that he held the garments of those who did the stoning (Acts 7:58).  The Jews saw themselves as victorious.  Paul was rewarded for his role in the Stephen trial. He was made a member of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish Supreme Court of 71 men who ruled over Jewish life and religion (Acts of Apostles 102). 

Saul became more ruthless in his pursuit of Christians as he believed he was doing it in the name of God.  Arguably, there is no one more frightening or more vicious than a religious terrorist, especially when he believes that he is doing the will of the Lord by killing innocent people.  This is exactly what Saul of Tarsus was: a religious terrorist. Acts 8:3 states, "He began ravaging the church, entering house after house, and dragging off men and women, he would put them in prison." 

But according to Ellen White,

The martyrdom of Stephen made a deep impression upon all who witnessed it. The memory of the signet of God upon his face; his words, which touched the very souls of those who heard them, remained in the minds of the beholders, and testified to the truth of that which he had proclaimed. His death was a sore trial to the church, but it resulted in the conviction of Saul, who could not efface from his memory the faith and constancy of the martyr, and the glory that had rested on his countenance.    At the scene of Stephen's trial and death, Saul had seemed to be imbued with a frenzied zeal. Afterward he was angered by his own secret conviction that Stephen had been honored by God at the very time when he was dishonored by men (AA 101).
Ellen White adds,

Saul had taken a prominent part in the trial and conviction of Stephen, and the striking evidences of God's presence with the martyr had led Saul to doubt the righteousness of the cause he had espoused against the followers of Jesus.  His mind was deeply stirred. In his perplexity he appealed to those in whose wisdom and judgment he had full confidence. The arguments of the priests and rulers finally convinced him that Stephen was a blasphemer, that the Christ whom the martyred disciple had preached was an impostor, and that those ministering in holy office must be right.  Not without severe trial did Saul come to this conclusion. But in the end his education and prejudices, his respect for his former teachers, and his pride of popularity braced him to rebel against the voice of conscience and the grace of God. And having fully decided that the priests and scribes were right, Saul became very bitter in his opposition to the doctrines taught by the disciples of Jesus. His activity in causing holy men and women to be dragged before tribunals, where some were condemned to imprisonment and some even to death, solely because of their faith in Jesus, brought sadness and gloom to the newly organized church, and caused many to seek safety in flight.  {AA 113} 

The pivotal passage in Paul's story is Acts 9:1-22, which recounts Paul's meeting with Jesus Christ on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus, a journey of about 150 miles. Saul was angered by what he had seen and filled with murderous rage against the Christians.

Before departing on his journey, he had asked the High Priest for letters to the synagogues in Damascus, asking for permission to bring any Christians (followers of "the Way," as they were known) back to Jerusalem to imprison them. On the road Saul was caught up in a bright light from heaven which caused him to fall face down on the ground. He heard the words, "Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?" He said, "Who are you Lord?" Jesus answered directly and clearly, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting" (vv. 4-5). Ellen White says,

     Now Christ had spoken to Saul with His own voice, saying, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me?" And the question, "Who art Thou, Lord?" was answered by the same voice, "I am Jesus whom thou persecutest." Christ here identifies Himself with His people. In persecuting the followers of Jesus, Saul had struck directly against the Lord of heaven. In falsely accusing and testifying against them, he had falsely accused and testified against the Saviour of the world.

    No doubt entered the mind of Saul that the One who spoke to him was Jesus of Nazareth, the long-looked-for Messiah, the Consolation and Redeemer of Israel. "Trembling and astonished," he inquired, "Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do."  {AA 117.2}  

From this moment on, Saul's life was turned upside down. The light of the Lord blinded him, and as he traveled on he had to rely on his companions. Saul stayed with a man called Judas.  In the meantime Paul had time to think through what happened.    
For three days Saul was "without sight, and neither did eat nor drink." These days of soul agony were to him as years. Again and again he recalled, with anguish of spirit, the part he had taken in the martyrdom of Stephen. With horror he thought of his guilt in allowing himself to be controlled by the malice and prejudice of the priests and rulers, even when the face of Stephen had been lighted up with the radiance of heaven. In sadness and brokenness of spirit he recounted the many times he had closed his eyes and ears against the most striking evidences and had relentlessly urged on the persecution of the believers in Jesus of Nazareth.  
During the long hours when Saul was shut in with God alone, he recalled many of the passages of Scripture referring to the first advent of Christ. Carefully he traced down the prophecies, with a memory sharpened by the conviction that had taken possession of his mind. As he reflected on the meaning of these prophecies he was astonished at his former blindness of understanding and at the blindness of the Jews in general, which had led to the rejection of Jesus as the promised Messiah. To his enlightened vision all now seemed plain. He knew that his former prejudice and unbelief had clouded his spiritual perception and had prevented him from discerning in Jesus of Nazareth the Messiah of prophecy.  {AA 118 119.1}  
Jesus instructed a man named Ananias to meet Saul.   He was at first hesitant because he knew Saul's reputation as an evil man. But the Lord told Ananias that Saul was a "chosen instrument" to carry His name before the Gentiles, kings and the children of Israel (v.15) and would suffer for doing so (v.16). Ananias followed the Lord's instructions and found Saul, on whom he laid hands, and told him of his vision of Jesus Christ. Through prayer, Saul received the Holy Spirit (v.17), regained his sight and was baptized (v.18). Saul immediately went into the synagogues proclaiming Jesus and saying He is the Son of God (v.20). The people were amazed and skeptical, as Saul's reputation was well known. The Jews thought he had come to take away the Christians (v.21). Saul's boldness increased as the Jews living in Damascus were confounded by Saul's arguments proving that Jesus was the Christ (v.22).

As a result of this miraculous transformation, Saul became known as Paul (Acts 13:9). Paul spent time in Arabia, Damascus, Jerusalem, Syria and his native Cilicia, and Barnabas enlisted his help to teach those in the church in Antioch (Acts 11:25). Interestingly, the Christians driven out of Palestine by Saul of Tarsus founded this multiracial church (Acts 11:19-21). Paul took his first of three missionary journeys in the late 40s A.D. Paul wrote many of the New Testament books. As previously noted, the book of Acts gives us a historical look at Paul's life and times. The Apostle Paul spent his life proclaiming the risen Christ Jesus throughout the Roman world, often at great personal peril (2 Corinthians 11:24-27). It is assumed that Paul died a martyr's death in the mid-to-late 60s A.D. in Rome. 

So, what can we learn from the life of the Apostle Paul? First, we learn that God can save anyone. 
Second, we learn from the life of Paul that anyone can be a humble, powerful witness for Jesus Christ. Finally, we learn that anyone can surrender completely to God. Paul was fully "sold-out" for God. "I want you to know, brothers, that what has happened to me has really served to advance the gospel, so that it has become known throughout the whole imperial guard and to all the rest that my imprisonment is for Christ. And most of the brothers, having become confident in the Lord by my imprisonment, are much more bold to speak the word without fear" (Philippians 1:12-14). Paul was in prison when he wrote these words, yet he was still praising God and sharing the good news. Through his hardships and suffering, Paul knew the outcome of a life well lived for Christ. He had surrendered his life fully, trusting God for everything. "For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain" (Philippians 1:21). Can we make the same claim?